- Anti-inflammatory & Immune Modulating
- Mitochondrial Function & Gut Microbiome
- Composition of Donkey Milk
- Anti-viral, Anti-bacterial, Anti-fungal, Anti-parasitic properties of Donkey Milk
- Anti-cancer, Anti-tumour
- Fermented Donkey Milk
- More Research
- ANTI-INFLAMMATORY & IMMUNE MODULATING
Donkey milk consumption exerts anti-inflammatory properties by normalizing antimicrobial peptides levels in Paneth's cells in a model of ileitis in mice. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27581119/
"In this study, we showed the beneficial effects of donkey milk (DM) on inflammatory damages, endogenous antimicrobial peptides levels and fecal microbiota profile in a mice model of Crohn's disease. Nowadays, new strategies of microbiome manipulations are on the light involving specific diets to induce and/or to maintain clinical remission. Interest of DM is explained by its high levels of antimicrobial peptides which confer it anti-inflammatory properties....DM consumption exerts anti-inflammatory properties in mice by restoring the endogenous levels of antimicrobial peptides which contribute in turn to reduce microbiota imbalance."
"Harnessing the Immune-Boosting and Antimicrobial Properties of Lyophilized Donkey Milk: Our study demonstrates that pasteurized and lyophilized milk donkey milk produced by Asinus Atlaniticus company retains the beneficial properties, including antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, and antioxidant activities. Specifically, our tests also revealed that key components of milk, such as lysozyme and immunoglobulins are preserved in the lyophilized product, exhibit antimicrobial properties that can help protect against microorganisms, including Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Additionally, our analysis found high levels of immunoglobulin G, which are essential for the human immune system. Importantly, we also confirmed that the lyophilized product retains these immunoglobulins even after processing." Furthermore, research using the Drosophila model has provided evidence of the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of lyophilized donkey milk. Specifically, studies have shown that the consumption of whey proteins of lyophilized donkey milk can help to modulate the immune response, reduce inflammation, and improve overall health outcomes." https://youtu.be/yywW705EZpM?si=zoZTvIGaXhyqG0m3
"We compared the intake of human milk, gold standard for infant nutrition, with equicaloric supplementation of donkey milk, the best substitute for newborns due to its nutritional properties, and cow milk, the primary marketed product. The results showed a hypolipidemic effect produced by donkey and human milk intake in parallel with enhanced mitochondrial activity/proton leakage. Reduced mitochondrial energy efficiency and proinflammatory signals (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1 and lipopolysaccharide levels) were associated with a significant increase of antioxidants (total thiols) and detoxifying enzyme activities (glutathione-S-transferase, NADH quinone oxidoreductase) in donkey- and human milk-treated animals. The beneficial effects were attributable, at least in part, to the activation of the nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor-2 pathway. Moreover, the metabolic benefits induced by human and donkey milk may be related to the modulation of gut microbiota. In fact, milk treatments uniquely affected the proportions of bacterial phyla and genera, and we hypothesized that the increased concentration of fecal butyrate in human and donkey milk-treated rats was related to the improved lipid and glucose metabolism and detoxifying activities"
Human Milk and Donkey Milk, Compared to Cow Milk, Reduce Inflammatory Mediators and Modulate Glucose and Lipid Metabolism, Acting on Mitochondrial Function and Oleylethanolamide Levels in Rat Skeletal Muscle
"Scope: Milk from various species differs in nutrient composition. In particular, human milk (HM) and donkey milk (DM) are characterized by a relative high level of triacylglycerol enriched in palmitic acid in sn-2 position. These dietary fats seem to exert beneficial nutritional properties through N-acylethanolamine tissue modulation. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of cow milk (CM), DM, and HM on inflammation and glucose and lipid metabolism, focusing on mitochondrial function, efficiency, and dynamics in skeletal muscle, which is the major determinant of resting metabolic rate. Moreover, we also evaluated the levels of endocannabinoids and N-acylethanolamines in liver and skeletal muscle, since tissue fatty acid profiles can be modulated by nutrient intervention."
Effects of donkey milk on oxidative stress and inflammatory response: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34519070/
“…we highlighted the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties of donkey milk using in vitro model, animal model, and the potential role of donkey milk in alleviating some chronic diseases related to inflammation. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: This paper was conducted on anti-inflammation and antioxidant activities of donkey milk and its related products, in addition to a summary of the relationship between oxidative stress and inflammation and the value of donkey milk. Donkey milk and its related products have been shown to scavenge reactive oxygen species, activate the antioxidant system, enhance immune function, and maintain the balance of intestinal flora in in vitro and in vivo models. This paper should provide a better understanding of the influences of oxidative stress and inflammation on host health and the biological functions and application of donkey milk, and will provide a certain basis for the nutritional regulation of several chronic diseases related to oxidative stress and inflammation. However, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In addition, few clinical studies have been performed to establish its multiple benefits in humans. Further research is warranted to evaluate its impacts on health at molecular levels."
Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-allergenic Properties https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24450455/
”in infants with intolerance to cow’s milk, donkey’s milk represents a good alternative due to its chemical characteristics similar to those of human milk….From an immunological point of view, donkey’s milk is able to induce release of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines from normal human peripheral blood lymphomononuclear cells, thus maintaining a condition of immune homeostasis….in these milks the presence of their own microbiota may normalize the human intestinal microbiota with a cascade of protective effects at intestinal mucosal sites, even including triggering of intestinal T regulatory cells.”
- MITOCHONDRIAL FUNCTION & GUT MICROBIOME
Effects of thermized donkey milk with lysozyme activity on altered gut barrier in mice exposed to water-avoidance stress: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31326167/
“Nutrition plays a crucial role in human gut health through the improvement of gut barrier functionality. Donkey milk represents an interesting source of natural antimicrobial factors such as lysozyme. Recently, anti-inflammatory properties of donkey milk lysozyme activity were described in a mouse model of ileitis. The current increase of donkey milk consumption highlights the necessity to propose a healthy milk compliant with microbiological standards. This study aims to define a heat treatment of donkey milk, retaining its high lysozyme activity, and to evaluate its beneficial effects on a gut barrier impairment model due to chronic stress in mice. To perform this experiment, samples of raw donkey milk were collected in 15 distinct French farms. Microbiological analysis and lysozyme content and activity were evaluated for each sample. Then, several heat treatments were carried out to define a time and temperature combination that allowed for both a reduction in the number of total micro-organisms, increasing the shelf-life of the product, and preservation of lysozyme activity. The beneficial effect of heated donkey milk on the gut barrier of mice was evaluated and compared with raw donkey milk. We found that samples of raw donkey milk showed low total mesophilic microbial counts, and no pathogens were detected. …..Oral administration of this heat-treated donkey milk in mice counteracted chronic stress-induced intestinal damage, illustrated by gut hyper-permeability and low-grade inflammation, similar to raw donkey milk. We have demonstrated for the first time that oral intervention with donkey milk, optimally heat-treated to retain enzymatic lysozyme activity, improves intestinal barrier damage linked to psychological stress in mice.”
"Different nutritional components are able, by modulating mitochondrial function and gut microbiota composition, to influence body composition, metabolic homeostasis and inflammatory state. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects produced by the supplementation of different milks on energy balance, inflammatory state, oxidative stress and antioxidant/detoxifying enzyme activities and to investigate the role of the mitochondrial efficiency and the gut microbiota in the regulation of metabolic functions in an animal model. We compared the intake of human milk, gold standard for infant nutrition, with equicaloric supplementation of donkey milk, the best substitute for newborns due to its nutritional properties, and cow milk, the primary marketed product. The results showed a hypolipidemic effect produced by donkey and human milk intake in parallel with enhanced mitochondrial activity/proton leakage. Reduced mitochondrial energy efficiency and proinflammatory signals (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1 and lipopolysaccharide levels) were associated with a significant increase of antioxidants (total thiols) and detoxifying enzyme activities (glutathione-S-transferase, NADH quinone oxidoreductase) in donkey- and human milk-treated animals. The beneficial effects were attributable, at least in part, to the activation of the nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor-2 pathway. Moreover, the metabolic benefits induced by human and donkey milk may be related to the modulation of gut microbiota. In fact, milk treatments uniquely affected the proportions of bacterial phyla and genera, and we hypothesized that the increased concentration of fecal butyrate in human and donkey milk-treated rats was related to the improved lipid and glucose metabolism and detoxifying activities."
Donkey whey protein and peptides regulate gut microbiota community and physiological functions of D-galactose-induced aging mice https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36789044/
“The prolongation of life span has attracted more and more attention in the current world. Gut microbiota is considered one of the most critical elements and is essential in regulating life span and quality. The effects of donkey whey protein (DWP) and donkey whey hydrolysate (DWPP) on physiological functions and gut microbiota of D-galactose-induced aging mice were investigated to find new strategies for resisting aging. Our results showed that DWP and DWPP could increase the body weight gain velocity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and thymus index, whereas decrease the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and improve the aging of the body in the liver congestion, oozy draw focal sclerosis of chronic inflammation. The effects of medium and high concentrations of DWP and low and medium concentrations of DWPP were the same as the vitamin C (Vc)-positive control group. It was found that both DWP and DWPP could change α-diversity; the relative abundance of Lactobacillus increased, whereas the relative abundance of Helicobacter and Stenotrophomonas decreased after being treated with DWP and DWPP. The correlation between intestinal microflora and physiological indexes showed that chao1, ACE, and observed species indexes in the α index were positively correlated with weight gain velocity, SOD activity, and thymus index. The relative abundance of Lactobacillus was positively correlated with SOD and thymus index but negatively correlated with MDA. The relative abundance of Stenotrophomonas was opposite to that of Lactobacillus. The Anaerobiospirillum, Fusobacterium, and Dubosiella had a significant positive correlation with the weight gain velocity. The study provided a deeper more profound understanding of the potential use of DWP and DWPP in senescence delays.”
- COMPOSITION OF DONKEY MILK
Donkey Milk: An Overview of its Chemical Composition and Main Nutritional Properties or Human Health Benefit Properties https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36649829/
“The donkey milk has a remarkable similarity to human milk, in addition to its valuable nutritional composition and content of numerous immune factors. The donkey milk is the subject of research worldwide, and data from the literature suggest significant differences with respect to the contents of individual components. However, some basic characteristics of donkey milk have been established: low contents of fat and cholesterol, total proteins and casein and high contents of lactose, whey proteins, calcium, selenium, and Vitamin D3. The donkey milk is rich in various protective proteins (α-lactalbumin, lysozyme, lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase, and immunoglobulins), and shows strong antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, hypoglycemic, antiparasitic, and antitumor activity. Donkey milk can be considered functional food, having in mind that its fatty-acid profile and content of essential fatty acids are beneficial for cardiac health. The total fat content in donkey milk is low compared to human milk, and for this reason it is necessary to enrich donkey milk with other fat in order to provide enough calories in a diet for children. Commercialization of donkey milk and dairy products is still limited due to low production levels, that is lack of products on the market, and lack of product information. Considering the research data from the literature, there is a need for human clinical trials in order to obtain a stronger evidence of the therapeutic properties of donkey milk.”
Current Knowledge on Functionality and Potential Therapeutic Uses of Donkey Milk https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34067986/
"The increase of knowledge on the composition of donkey milk has revealed marked similarities to human milk, which led to a growing number of investigations focused on testing the potential effects of donkey milk in vitro and in vivo. This paper examines the scientific evidence regarding the beneficial effects of donkey milk on human health. Most clinical studies report a tolerability of donkey milk in 82.6-98.5% of infants with cow milk protein allergies. The average protein content of donkey milk is about 18 g/L. Caseins, which are main allergenic components of milk, are less represented compared to cow milk (56% of the total protein in donkey vs. 80% in cow milk). Donkey milk is well accepted by children due to its high concentration of lactose (about 60 g/L). Immunomodulatory properties have been reported in one study in humans and in several animal models. Donkey milk also seems to modulate the intestinal microbiota, enhance antioxidant defense mechanisms and detoxifying enzymes activities, reduce hyperglycemia and normalize dyslipidemia. Donkey milk has lower calorie and fat content compared with other milks used in human nutrition (fat ranges from 0.20% to 1.7%) and a more favourable fatty acid profile, being low in saturated fatty acids (3.02 g/L) and high in alpha-linolenic acid (about 7.25 g/100 g of fat). Until now, the beneficial properties of donkey milk have been mostly related to whey proteins, among which β-lactoglobulin is the most represented (6.06 g/L), followed by α-lactalbumin (about 2 g/L) and lysozyme (1.07 g/L). So far, the health functionality of donkey milk has been tested almost exclusively on animal models. Furthermore, in vitro studies have described inhibitory action against bacteria, viruses, and fungi. From the literature review emerges the need for new randomized clinical trials on humans to provide stronger evidence of the potential beneficial health effects of donkey milk, which could lead to new applications as an adjuvant in the treatment of cardiometabolic diseases, malnutrition, and aging."
“Donkey’s milk (DM) has recently aroused scientific interest, above all among paediatric allergologists. A deeper knowledge of both proteins and fats in donkey’s milk is necessary to evaluate the immunological, physiological and nutritional properties. By using the most refined techniques for fatty acids analysis, the paper offers a detailed comparative analysis of the lipid fractions of DM as well as of human and cow milk, also indicating the distribution of fatty-acid moieties among sn-1/3 and sn-2 positions of the glycerol backbone. In DM the position of fatty acids on glycerol backbone, above all of long chain saturated fatty acids, is very similar to that of human milk: this fact, in conjunction with the relatively high contents of medium-chain triglycerides, makes the lipids in DM, through quantitatively reduced, highly bioavailable. The high PUFA n-3 content of donkey’s milk, and especially its low n-6/n-3 ratio, acquires particular interest in subjects affected by cow’s milk protein allergy. Whole DM might also constitute the basis for formulas suitable for subjects in the first year of life..” (Gastaldi D, et al. Front Biosci (Elite Ed). 2010.)
"The donkey’s three major whey proteins are α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin and lysozyme. Donkey’s milk α-lactalbumin has two isoforms with different isoeletric point . Recently, it has been shown that α-lactalbumin presents antiviral, antitumor, and anti-stress properties. In particular in human breast milk it was shown that the α-lactalbumin forms a complex with oleic acid called HAMLET (Human Alpha-lactalbumin Made Lethal to Tumor cells) that proved to be able to induce tumour-selective apoptosis. This complex may be considered as a potential therapeutic agent against various tumour cells . Furthermore it was shown that α-lactalbumin possesses anti-inflammatory activity exerted by the inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and phospholipase A2 .....The amount of lysozyme in donkey’s milk varied considerably during the different stages of lactation, with a mean value of 1.0 mg/ml, and proved to be higher with respect to that in bovine (traces), human (0.12 mg/ml) and goat’smilk (traces), whereas, it was very close to mare’s milk (0.79 mg/ml)..."
“Nucleotides play a crucial role to cellular functions; they can be obtained from the diet or through the nucleotide salvage pathway, however, in particular situations (occurring mainly in newborns) the metabolic demand of nucleotides exceeds the capacity of their synthesis. These molecules, are receiving attention from a nutraceutical point of view because of their potential direct role in regulating metabolism and infant body condition. Donkey’s milk may be considered a good replacer for cow’s milk in feeding children with severe Ig-E mediated cow’s milk protein allergy, due to its high similarity with human milk. In this study, the presence of cytidine, uridine, CMP, UMP, guanosine, and adenosine, involved in numerous biochemical and physiological activities, were detected for the first time through a RP-HPLC method.”. (Vincenzetti S, et al. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2014)
"In the last few decades, there has been a renewed interest in donkeys by the scientific community involved in the recovery of biodiversity, in the rescue of some donkey breeds that have become almost extinct, and in the rediscovery of donkey milk. In addition, due to the increase in food allergies, attention has been focused on the need for a “natural” milk with a good taste, which could be used in some childhood illnesses such as allergy to cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA). Donkey milk is very similar to human milk, especially in terms of its protein profile and lactose content, which increases palatability, stimulates intestinal absorption of calcium, and thus provides an excellent substrate for the development of enteric flora. The high content of lysozyme in this milk favors selective action against pathogenic microorganisms. In addition, the mineral content (such as calcium) and liposoluble vitamins make it an excellent nutraceutical product. A project aimed to create a donkey milk supply chain from the Amiata native breed has recently been developed in Central Italy (Tuscany). In this paper, the nutritional and nutraceutical characteristics of donkey milk are reviewed in detail. In addition, some of the potential uses of donkey milk have been briefly described: in the diet of children with CMPA, in the diets of the elderly and of people who need to lose weight by virtue of the low-fat content, and the good contribution of omega 3."
"The legendary therapeutics properties of donkey milk have recently been supported by many clinical trials who have clearly demonstrated that, even if with adequate lipid integration, it may represent a valid natural substitute of cow milk for feeding allergic children. During the last decade many investigations by MS-based methods have been performed in order to obtain a better knowledge of donkey milk proteins. The knowledge about the primary structure of donkey milk proteins now may provide the basis for a more accurate comprehension of its potential benefits for human nutrition. In this aspect, experimental data today available clearly demonstrate that donkey milk proteins (especially casein components) are more closely related with the human homologues rather than cow counterparts. Moreover, the low allergenic properties of donkey milk with respect to cow one seem to be related to the low total protein content, the low ratio of caseins to whey fraction, and finally to the presence in almost all bovine IgE-binding linear epitopes of multiple amino acid differences with respect to the corresponding regions of donkey milk counterparts."
"Donkey milk is considered a potential substitute to human milk for infants affected by cows’ milk protein allergy. With the aim to widen our knowledge on this valuable food, we explored the compositional characteristics of Sardinian donkey milk. Donkey milk showed a low lipid content and high lysozyme levels compared to human milk, and a bacterial count below the recommended threshold. Hydrophilic compounds such as amino acids, organic acids and mono and disaccharides, were analyzed by GC-MS for donkey milk, formula milk and human milk. Results of the multivariate statistical analysis indicated that the metabolite profile of donkey milk is more similar to human milk than cow milk based formulae, the latter being richer in sugars and lower in amino acids. Moreover, modifications of human milk and donkey milk metabolite profiles during lactation time were studied. An increase of protein levels was observed in donkey milk, while in human milk pyroglutamic acid and myo-inositol levels increased and decreased, respectively.
- ANTIVIRAL, ANTIBACTERIAL, ANTIFUNGAL PROPERTIES
“Human rotavirus is the leading cause of severe gastroenteritis in infants and children under the age of 5 years in both developed and developing countries. Human lactadherin, a milk fat globule membrane glycoprotein, inhibits human rotavirus infection in vitro, whereas bovine lactadherin is not active. Moreover, it protects breastfed infants against symptomatic rotavirus infections. To explore the potential antiviral activity of lactadherin sourced by equines, we undertook a proteomic analysis of milk fat globule membrane proteins from donkey milk and elucidated its amino acid sequence. Alignment of the human, bovine, and donkey lactadherin sequences revealed the presence of an Asp-Gly-Glu (DGE) α2β1 integrin-binding motif in the N-terminal domain of donkey sequence only. Because integrin α2β1 plays a critical role during early steps of rotavirus host cell adhesion, we tested a minilibrary of donkey lactadherin-derived peptides containing DGE sequence for anti-rotavirus activity. A 20-amino acid peptide containing both DGE and RGD motifs (named pDGE-RGD) showed the greatest activity, and its mechanism of antiviral action was characterized; pDGE-RGD binds to integrin α2β1 by means of the DGE motif and inhibits rotavirus attachment to the cell surface. These findings suggest the potential anti-rotavirus activity of equine lactadherin and support the feasibility of developing an anti-rotavirus peptide that acts by hindering virus-receptor binding.”. (Civra A, et al. J Biol Chem. 2015.)
Donkey Milk: An Overview of its Chemical Composition and Main Nutritional Properties or Human Health Benefit Properties https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36649829/
“Donkey milk has a remarkable similarity to human milk, in addition to its valuable nutritional composition and content of numerous immune factors. The donkey milk is the subject of research worldwide, and data from the literature suggest significant differences with respect to the contents of individual components. However, some basic characteristics of donkey milk have been established: low contents of fat and cholesterol, total proteins and casein and high contents of lactose, whey proteins, calcium, selenium, and Vitamin D3. The donkey milk is rich in various protective proteins (α-lactalbumin, lysozyme, lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase, and immunoglobulins), and shows strong antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, hypoglycemic, antiparasitic, and antitumor activity. Donkey milk can be considered functional food, having in mind that its fatty-acid profile and content of essential fatty acids are beneficial for cardiac health. The total fat content in donkey milk is low compared to human milk, and for this reason it is necessary to enrich donkey milk with other fat in order to provide enough calories in a diet for children. Commercialization of donkey milk and dairy products is still limited due to low production levels, that is lack of products on the market, and lack of product information. Considering the research data from the literature, there is a need for human clinical trials in order to obtain a stronger evidence of the therapeutic properties of donkey milk.”
- ANTI-CANCER / ANTI-TUMOUR
“The anti-proliferative and anti-tumour effects of donkey milk on A549 human lung cancer cells were investigated in vitro, and its effects on cell cycle progression, apoptosis and cytokine production were examined. Donkey milk active fractions reduced the viability of A549 cells in dose-dependent and time-dependent manners. Fraction-IV, a fraction of whey protein with a molecular mass >10 kDa, was the most effective fraction (P < 0.05) in inducing an accumulation of A549 cells in the G0/G1 and G2/M phases, indicating a potent cytotoxicity and causing cell death by apoptosis. The anti-proliferative activity of conditioned medium, prepared with fraction-IV-stimulated murine splenocytes, was significantly higher than that of fraction-IV alone (P < 0.05). Moreover, it could increase the secretion of Interleukin-2 (IL-2), Interferon-γ (IFN-γ), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and Interleukin 1β (IL-1β). The active components of donkey milk not only could directly suppress tumour proliferation in vitro, but may also indirectly kill tumours through activation of lymphocytes and macrophages. A high content of lysozyme in fraction-IV may contribute to its anti-tumour activity.” Study by Xueying Mao1, Junnan Gu1, Yan Sun, Shiping Xu, Xiaoying Zhang, Haiying Yang, Fazheng Ren http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0958694609001009
"Donkey milk is considered an ideal substitute for human milk and is considered a potential complementary dairy product for the treatment of a variety of human diseases, including cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of donkey colostrum (DC) and mature milk (DM) on 4T1 triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) tumors in mice. Metabolomics analyses showed that a total of 476 possible metabolites were found in both types of milk. Among them, 34 differential metabolites were identified, including 25 up-regulated and 9 down-regulated metabolites in the DC compared with DM. Both DC and DM are rich in many known anticancer constituents. The inhibitory effects of DC and DM on 4T1 primary and relative organ weight of the liver and lung were determined by measuring the volume of primary tumors and weighing the liver and lung. Both DC and DM significantly reduced both primary tumor size and relative organ weight of the liver and lung in 4T1 mice without affecting the bodyweight of mice. When the expression of cleaved caspase-3, Bax, and MMP2 was investigated by immunohistochemistry, the results showed that DC and DM inhibited the progression of 4T1 tumors by inducing the expression of cleaved-caspase-3 and Bax, and inhibiting the expression of MMP2 and CD31. Our data suggest that DC and DM inhibit the growth and metastasis of mouse 4T1 tumors by inducing apoptosis."
- HYPOALLERGENIC DONKEY MILK
“Cow’s milk protein allergy (CMPA) is an abnormal immunological response to cow milk proteins, which results in IgE-mediated reactions. The therapeutic strategy to respond to CMPA envisages the total elimination of milk or the administration of cow’s milk substitutes. For this reason the use of milk from other mammalian species was tested. Among them, donkey’s milk proved to be the best alternative in feeding infants affected by CMPA, since its chemical composition is comparable to human milk.”
“Successful therapy in cow’s milk protein allergy rests on completely eliminating cow’s milk proteins from the child’s diet: it is thus necessary to provide a replacement food. This prospective study investigated tolerance of donkey’s milk in a population of 46 selected children with cow’s milk protein allergy, for whom it was not possible to use any cow’s milk substitute. Thirty-eight children (82.6%) liked and tolerated donkey’s milk at the challenge and for the entire duration of follow-up. Catch-up growth was observed in all subjects with growth deficit during cow’s milk proteins challenge. The degree of cross-reactivity of immunoglobulin E (IgE) with donkey’s milk proteins was very weak and aspecific. Donkey’s milk was found to be a valid alternative to both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated cow’s milk proteins allergy, including in terms of palatability and weight-height gain.”
“STUDY DESIGN: A prospective study was conducted on 92 children with CMA, diagnosed through a CM elimination diet, followed by double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) unless contraindicated. Maternal milk was unavailable and current CM substitutes could not be used. Moreover, 89 percent were affected by multiple FA, and subjected to very restricted diets. Within 3 months after the last CM challenge, DBPCFC for DM was performed. CM or DM skin prick test and sIgE determination preceded the CM or DM challenge, respectively. Native electrophoresis and immunoblotting were used to identify CM and DM cross-reactive proteins. Z-scores of weight and length/stature for age were calculated at DM food challenge (T0) and during DM assumption. RESULTS: 83 children (90.2 percent) liked and tolerated DM, at challenge and during follow-up, with increased Z-score for weight and length/stature and improved nutritional parameters. Bovine beta-lactoglobulin was identified as the cross-reacting protein among the DM allergic patients. CONCLUSIONS: DM was found to be a valid alternative foodstuff, in terms of clinical tolerability, palatability and nutritional adequacy, in subjects with CMA who were highly problematic from the feeding standpoint.”
“Cow’s milk protein allergy (CMPA) is an abnormal immunological response to cow milk proteins, which results in IgE-mediated reactions. The therapeutic strategy to respond to CMPA envisages the total elimination of milk or the administration of cow’s milk substitutes. For this reason the use of milk from other mammalian species was tested. Among them, donkey’s milk proved to be the best alternative in feeding infants affected by CMPA, since its chemical composition is comparable to human milk. In this work an in vitrostudy was performed in order to analyze the IgE reactivity to milk protein allergens from cow, donkey and goat. In particular, immunoblotting experiments using sera from milk-allergic and non-allergic adult volunteers were conducted with the aim of verifying the hypoallergenic property of donkey’s milk. This study provided a preliminary evidence of the hypoallergenicity of donkey’s milk when compared to bovine and goat milk” (Vincenzetti S, et al. Vet Ital. 2014 Apr-Jun.)
“Donkeys milk was confirmed as a safe and valid treatment for the most complicated cases of multiple food intolerances.:
- FERMENTED DONKEY MILK
“The aim of this work was to investigate on the functional features of a donkey milk probiotic berevage as a novel food. Particularly, it was to study the decrease of lactose content and the antioxidant activity of standard yogurt (YC) and probiotic yogurt (YP; Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei) from donkey milk during the storage up to 30 d at 4 ºC. The evolution of lactose content using enzymatic-spectrophotometric kits was analyzed. Antioxidant activity of yogurt was measured using 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and thiol assays. Parallel consumer sensory studies were carried out as consumer test in order to gain information about the impact of these novel fermented beverages on sensory perceptions. The statistical analysis has shown significant effect of studied factors. The results showed that the lactose content gradually decreased during storage in both yogurts, reaching values of 2.36% and 2.10% in YC and YP, respectively, at 30 d (P < 0.05). During storage of both yogurt types, the antioxidant activity increased, but YP showed a higher antioxidant activity than YC. The results suggest that the antioxidant activity of yogurt samples was affected by cultures of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). We conclude that the fermented donkey milk could be configured as health and nutraceutical food, which aims to meet nutritional requirements of certain consumers groups with lactose or cow milk protein intolerance.”. (Perna A, et al. J Food Sci. 2015
anti-tumor, immunological, for preventing atherosclerosis (hardening of arteries), and probiotic properties
”the rats on cows milk fattened up, the rats on donkey milk were super energized. “And their mitochondria – the tiny batteries that power cells – were super-charged, turning food into energy at a fast pace”